Impact of Bankruptcy on Credit Score
Bankruptcy is a legal process that allows you to get relief from some or all of your debts when you are unable to pay them. However, filing for bankruptcy can have a serious and lasting impact on your credit score, which can affect your ability to get credit, loans, or other financial products in the future. In this blog post, we will explain how bankruptcy affects your credit score, how long it takes to recover from bankruptcy, and how to rebuild your credit after bankruptcy.
Chapter 7 vs. Chapter 13:
There are two main types of bankruptcy for individuals: Chapter 7 and Chapter 13. Chapter 7 bankruptcy involves liquidating some of your assets to pay off some of your debts, and then discharging the rest of your debts. Chapter 13 bankruptcy involves creating a repayment plan to pay back some or all of your debts over a period of three to five years.
Both types of bankruptcy will lower your credit score, but Chapter 7 bankruptcy will have a more severe and longer-lasting effect than Chapter 13 bankruptcy. According to FICO, the company that creates the most widely used credit scoring model, filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy can lower your credit score by 200 points or more, while filing for Chapter 13 bankruptcy can lower your credit score by 130 to 150 points.
A Chapter 7 bankruptcy will also stay on your credit report for 10 years, while a Chapter 13 bankruptcy will stay on your credit report for seven years2.
Timeline for Credit Recovery:
The length of time it takes to rebuild your credit after bankruptcy depends on several factors, such as your starting credit score, your current credit situation, and your credit habits. However, some general guidelines are:
- It may take two to four years to qualify for a mortgage after bankruptcy, depending on the type of bankruptcy, the type of mortgage, and the lender’s requirements.
- It may take one to three years to qualify for an auto loan after bankruptcy, depending on the type of bankruptcy, the type of loan, and the lender’s requirements.
- It may take six months to a year to qualify for a credit card after bankruptcy, depending on the type of bankruptcy, the type of card, and the issuer’s requirements.
However, these are only estimates, and your actual timeline may vary depending on your specific circumstances. The good news is that you can start rebuilding your credit as soon as your bankruptcy is discharged, and you can see improvements in your credit score over time if you follow some credit rebuilding strategies.
Bankruptcy Debt Discharge:
One of the benefits of filing for bankruptcy is that you can get some or all of your debts discharged, which means that you are no longer legally obligated to pay them. However, this does not mean that your debts will disappear from your credit report. Discharged debts will still appear on your credit report, but they will be marked as “discharged” or “included in bankruptcy” to indicate that they are no longer owed.
Discharged debts will have a negative impact on your credit score, as they reflect your inability to repay your obligations. However, the impact of discharged debts will decrease over time, as they become older and less relevant to your current credit situation. Discharged debts will fall off your credit report after seven years from the date of delinquency, or 10 years from the date of bankruptcy filing, whichever is earlier.
Managing Credit After Bankruptcy
Filing for bankruptcy can give you a fresh start, but it also comes with a responsibility to manage your credit wisely and avoid falling into debt again. Here are some tips on how to manage your credit after bankruptcy:
Check and Monitor: Importance of regularly checking credit reports post-bankruptcy
One of the first steps to managing your credit after bankruptcy is to check your credit reports and monitor them regularly. You can get a free copy of your credit report from each of the three major credit bureaus (Experian, TransUnion, and Equifax) every 12 months through AnnualCreditReport.com. You can also get free weekly credit reports from the same website until April 2022.
Checking your credit reports can help you:
- Verify that your bankruptcy and discharged debts are reported correctly and accurately.
- Identify and dispute any errors or inaccuracies that could be hurting your credit score.
- Track your credit progress and see how your credit score changes over time.
Dispute Inaccuracies: Addressing any errors or discrepancies in credit reports
If you find any errors or discrepancies in your credit reports, such as incorrect account information, duplicate accounts, or fraudulent accounts, you have the right to dispute them with the credit bureaus. Disputing errors can help you improve your credit score by removing negative or inaccurate information from your credit history.
To dispute an error, you need to:
- Contact the credit bureau that reported the error and provide them with your personal information, the account information, and the reason for your dispute. You can do this online, by phone, or by mail.
- Provide any supporting documents or evidence that can prove your claim, such as copies of your bankruptcy discharge, payment receipts, or identity theft reports.
- Wait for the credit bureau to investigate your dispute and respond to you within 30 days. The credit bureau will also notify the creditor or the source of the information about your dispute and ask them to verify or correct the information.
- Check the outcome of your dispute and see if the error has been corrected or removed from your credit report. If you are not satisfied with the outcome, you can request a statement of dispute to be added to your credit report, or escalate your dispute to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau or the Federal Trade Commission.
Timely Payments: Significance of consistent, on-time payments to rebuild credit
One of the most important factors in rebuilding your credit after bankruptcy is making consistent, on-time payments on your bills and any existing or new lines of credit. Your payment history accounts for 35% of your FICO credit score, and it shows your ability and willingness to repay your debts as agreed.
Making timely payments can help you:
- Establish a positive credit history and demonstrate your creditworthiness to future lenders and creditors.
- Avoid late fees, penalty interest rates, and negative marks on your credit report that can lower your credit score.
- Reduce your debt balances and improve your credit utilization ratio, which is another key factor in your credit score.
To make sure you pay your bills on time, you can:
- Set up automatic payments or reminders for your due dates.
- Pay at least the minimum amount due on your credit cards and loans every month, or more if you can afford it.
- Contact your creditors or service providers if you are having trouble making payments and ask for a hardship plan or a payment extension.
Utility and Phone Payments: Leveraging non-traditional payments to contribute positively to credit
Another way to rebuild your credit after bankruptcy is to leverage your non-traditional payments, such as your utility and phone bills, to contribute positively to your credit. These payments are not typically reported to the credit bureaus, but they can show your financial responsibility and stability if you pay them on time and in full.
To use your utility and phone payments to boost your credit, you can:
- Sign up for a free service like Experian Boost, which allows you to link your bank account and add your utility and phone payments to your Experian credit report. This can increase your credit score instantly by adding positive payment history to your credit profile.
- Consider alternative credit scoring models, such as FICO XD or UltraFICO, which use data from your bank accounts, utility bills, and other sources to generate a credit score for you if you have a thin or no credit file. These scores can help you access credit products that you may not qualify for otherwise.
Debt Repayment: Strategies for paying down remaining debts post-bankruptcy
Even after filing for bankruptcy, you may still have some debts that were not discharged, such as student loans, taxes, child support, or alimony. Paying down these debts can help you rebuild your credit by reducing your debt-to-income ratio, which is a measure of your ability to manage your debt payments relative to your income. A lower debt-to-income ratio can make you more attractive to lenders and creditors, as it indicates that you have enough income to cover your current and future obligations.
To pay down your remaining debts post-bankruptcy, you can:
- Create a budget and track your income and expenses. Identify areas where you can save money and allocate more funds to your debt payments.
- Use the debt snowball or debt avalanche method to prioritize your debt payments. The debt snowball method involves paying off your smallest debt first, then moving on to the next smallest debt, and so on. This can give you a sense of accomplishment and motivation to keep going. The debt avalanche method involves paying off your highest-interest debt first, then moving on to the next highest-interest debt, and so on. This can save you money on interest and reduce your debt faster.
- Negotiate with your creditors or collectors to lower your interest rates, waive fees, or settle your debts for less than you owe. This can help you save money and get out of debt sooner. However, be aware of the potential consequences of debt settlement, such as tax implications, credit damage, and legal risks.
Secured Credit Cards: Utilizing secured cards to start rebuilding credit
One of the challenges of rebuilding your credit after bankruptcy is that you may have difficulty getting approved for new credit
products, as you may have a low credit score, a limited credit history, or a record of bankruptcy. However, one of the ways to overcome this challenge is to apply for a secured credit card, which is a type of credit card that requires you to make a security deposit as collateral. The security deposit acts as a guarantee for the card issuer, and it usually determines your credit limit.
Secured credit cards can help you start rebuilding your credit by:
- Giving you access to a line of credit that you can use responsibly and pay off in full every month. This can improve your credit utilization ratio and add positive payment history to your credit report.
- Reporting your payment activity to the credit bureaus, which can increase your credit score over time. However, make sure that the secured card issuer does report to the credit bureaus, as not all of them do.
- Graduating you to an unsecured credit card after a period of consistent and timely payments. This can boost your credit score by increasing your available credit and reducing your credit utilization ratio.
To get the most out of a secured credit card, you should:
- Shop around for the best secured card offer, comparing the fees, interest rates, deposit requirements, credit limits, and reporting policies of different card issuers.
- Make a reasonable security deposit that you can afford and that matches your spending needs. Avoid maxing out your credit limit or carrying a balance on your secured card, as this can hurt your credit score and incur interest charges.
- Pay your secured card bill on time and in full every month, preferably before the due date. This can help you avoid late fees, penalty rates, and negative marks on your credit report.
- Monitor your credit score and credit report regularly, and check for any improvements or errors. You can also request a credit limit increase or a deposit refund from your card issuer if you have a good payment history and a low credit utilization ratio.
Another key aspect of managing your credit after bankruptcy is controlling your spending habits and avoiding accumulating new debt. This can help you maintain a healthy financial situation and prevent you from falling into the same debt trap that led you to bankruptcy in the first place.
To control your spending habits and avoid new debt, you can:
- Create and follow a realistic budget that accounts for your income, expenses, savings, and debt payments. You can use a budgeting app, a spreadsheet, or a pen and paper to track your cash flow and plan your spending.
- Use cash or debit cards instead of credit cards for your everyday purchases. This can help you limit your spending to what you have and avoid overspending or impulse buying.
- Save for emergencies and unexpected expenses, such as medical bills, car repairs, or home maintenance. You can set aside a portion of your income every month in a separate savings account or an emergency fund. This can help you avoid using credit cards or loans to cover these costs, which can add to your debt and interest.
- Set financial goals and reward yourself for achieving them. For example, you can set a goal to save a certain amount of money, pay off a certain debt, or improve your credit score by a certain number of points. You can then reward yourself with something that you enjoy, such as a movie, a meal, or a hobby, as long as it fits your budget and does not involve debt.
Credit-Building Loans: Exploring options for loans to aid credit rebuilding
Another option for rebuilding your credit after bankruptcy is to explore credit-building loans, which are loans that are designed to help you improve your credit score and establish a positive credit history. Credit-building loans are different from regular loans, as they do not give you access to the loan amount upfront. Instead, the loan amount is held in a savings account or a certificate of deposit (CD) until you pay off the loan in full. As you make monthly payments on the loan, the lender reports your payment activity to the credit bureaus, which can boost your credit score over time. Once you pay off the loan, you get access to the loan amount plus any interest earned.
Credit-building loans can help you rebuild your credit by:
- Giving you an opportunity to demonstrate your ability and commitment to repay a loan as agreed. This can increase your creditworthiness and credibility to future lenders and creditors.
- Adding a mix of credit types to your credit profile, which can improve your credit score. Having a variety of credit accounts, such as credit cards, installment loans, and mortgages, can show that you can handle different types of credit responsibly.
- Increasing your savings and earning interest on your loan amount. This can help you build your financial security and prepare for emergencies or goals.
To benefit from a credit-building loan, you should:
- Find a reputable and trustworthy lender that offers credit-building loans, such as a credit union, a community bank, or an online platform. Compare the fees, interest rates, loan terms, and reporting policies of different lenders, and choose the one that suits your needs and budget.
- Apply for a credit-building loan that you can afford and that matches your credit goals. The loan amount, the monthly payment, and the loan term should be reasonable and realistic for your financial situation and credit score improvement.
- Pay your credit-building loan on time and in full every month, preferably before the due date. This can help you avoid late fees, penalty rates, and negative marks on your credit report.
Additional Tips for Credit Rebuilding
Besides the tips mentioned above, here are some additional tips for credit rebuilding after bankruptcy:
Understanding Credit Factors:
To rebuild your credit after bankruptcy, it is important to understand the factors that influence your credit scores and how they are calculated. Different credit scoring models may use different criteria and weights, but the most common factors are:
This is the most important factor, accounting for 35% of your FICO credit score. It reflects your track record of paying your bills and debts on time and as agreed. Late payments, missed payments, defaults, collections, and bankruptcies can negatively affect your payment history and lower your credit score.
this is the second most important factor, accounting for 30% of your FICO credit score. It measures how much of your available credit you are using, expressed as a percentage. For example, if you have a credit card with a $1,000 limit and a $500 balance, your credit utilization ratio is 50%. A lower credit utilization ratio indicates that you are using your credit responsibly and not overextending yourself. A higher credit utilization ratio indicates that you are relying too much on your credit and may have trouble repaying your debts. A good rule of thumb is to keep your credit utilization ratio below 30% on each credit card and across all credit cards.
Credit history length:
This is the third most important factor, accounting for 15% of your FICO credit score. It measures how long you have been using credit, based on the age of your oldest and newest credit accounts, and the average age of all your credit accounts. A longer credit history shows that you have more experience and stability with credit, and it can positively affect your credit score. A shorter credit history shows that you have less experience and stability with credit, and it can negatively affect your credit score.
This is the fourth most important factor, accounting for 10% of your FICO credit score. It reflects the diversity and variety of your credit accounts, such as credit cards, installment loans, mortgages, and other types of credit. A more balanced and varied credit mix shows that you can handle different types of credit responsibly, and it can positively affect your credit score. A less balanced and varied credit mix shows that you have a limited or narrow credit experience, and it can negatively affect your credit score.
This is the fifth most important factor, accounting for 10% of your FICO credit score. It indicates how often you apply for and open new credit accounts, especially in a short period of time. Applying for and opening new credit accounts can generate hard inquiries on your credit report, which can temporarily lower your credit score. Too many hard inquiries in a short period of time can also signal that you are desperate for credit or a credit risk, and it can negatively affect your credit score. However, applying for and opening new credit accounts can also benefit your credit score in the long run, as it can increase your available credit, lower your credit utilization ratio, and add to your credit mix.
By understanding these credit factors and how they affect your credit score, you can take steps to improve them and rebuild your credit after bankruptcy.
Patience and Persistence:
Rebuilding your credit after bankruptcy is not a quick or easy process. It takes time, effort, and discipline to repair the damage done by bankruptcy and restore your credit health. However, it is not impossible, and you can achieve your credit goals if you are persistent and patient.
Persistence means that you are consistent and committed to following the best practices and strategies for credit rebuilding, such as paying your bills on time, keeping your credit utilization low, checking your credit reports, disputing errors, and applying for new credit wisely. Persistence also means that you do not give up or get discouraged by setbacks or challenges, such as rejections, denials, or low credit scores. Instead, you learn from your mistakes, adjust your plans, and try again.
Patience means that you are realistic and optimistic about your credit rebuilding process, and you do not expect immediate or miraculous results. Patience also means that you recognize and appreciate the small and gradual improvements in your credit score and credit situation, and you celebrate your achievements and milestones. Patience also means that you understand that credit rebuilding is a long-term and ongoing process, and you do not stop or relax your efforts once you reach your desired credit score or level.